Teaching & Learning Resource Center



A technology-enabled learning tool that provides a multimedia object for which a student has access to the entire video environment, even as the video plays. A 3D video can be watched just like any normal (2D) video on a computer, with the added functionality of "looking around" from the viewpoint of the camera. Some 3D videos can be experienced in a virtual reality (VR) environment through a VR headset, but it is distinguishable from a true VR environment in that it only entails video, not interaction with any real- or virtual-world objects.


The practice of ensuring technologies and content are able to be used and navigated by students with vision, auditory, motor, or cognitive disabilities. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and ADA Title II guarantee accessibility as a civil right; violation of those civil rights may result in fines and lawsuits in addition to negative student experiences. The university recently introduced its Interim Digital Accessibility Policy to emphasize its commitment to accessibility. Accessibility must be considered when using any technology in CarmenCanvas, including Carmen itself. Some common areas to be mindful of include video captions, alternate text for images, formatting and structure of documents, specific technology platforms, and types of assessments. Additional tips and strategies for maximizing accessibility in online courses can be found on the Accessibility page.

A technology-enabled teaching strategy that provides a customized learning experience for each student based upon mastery of content. In a course that employs adaptive learning, students are directed to specific course materials based upon their performance on assessments that measure their existing knowledge and skill levels. Students who perform well on these assessments might advance to more challenging materials, whereas students who do not perform as well might be directed to more remedial materials to help with content mastery. Adaptive learning can be implemented in CarmenCanvas using features such as module requirements, module prerequisites, and mastery paths.

In CarmenCanvas, Announcements allow instructors to communicate with students about course activities and post interesting course-related topics. Announcements are designed to allow instructors to broadcast information out to all members of a course or to all members of sections within a course.

In CarmenCanvas, a submission through which students display knowledge. Assignment submissions may be one or more of the following: online text entry, website URL, media recording, file upload, paper submission, no submission, or submission via an external tool integrated within CarmenCanvas. CarmenCanvas also allows instructors to set up assignment groups. Assignment groups are a way for instructors to group assignment types together, as well as weight assignments for final grades. More information regarding assignments can be found in the Assignments section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

Learning that happens when students take in the same material and engage in the same activities at different times and locations. In asynchronous learning environments, the instructional materials, activities, and assessments for a given module are available for students to complete on their own schedule according to a predetermined pace, typically weekly. To maintain this pace, the instructor establishes a series of internal deadlines to which students must adhere.

The use of computer-generated sensory information integrated into a real-world environment. While AR is grounded in real-world environments, it features a computer-generated overlay to provide participants a more immersive experience and a wealth of information.

In CarmenCanvas, the period of time during which an assignment, discussion, quiz, or survey is available to students. When editing an assignment, instructors will enter a due date. If the instructor wants to allow students access to the assignment only for a specific amount of time, they will enter a date and time in the Available From option as well as a date and time in the Until option. This creates a window of time when students are able to access the assignment and submit it. Instructors can also specify a window of time in which students are able to view correct answers within a quiz. When editing a quiz, the instructor should check the Let Students See the Correct Answers checkbox, which will allow the instructor to specify when to show and hide correct answers. More information regarding availability dates/windows can be found in the due dates resource in the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.


Learning that results from a purposeful and effective integration of both online and face-to-face instructional methods. Blended learning allows for the use of face-to-face time to establish and maintain communities of inquiry within the classroom, while the online environment helps instructors assess and monitor student learning. Researchers assert that the primary "test" for blended learning is the course's successful integration of these two core components. Instructors at Ohio State can implement blended learning in an in-person (P), hybrid (HY), or distance-enhanced (DH) class.

An activity designed to increase interactivity in online courses through the use of branching, multi-choice narratives. These branching activities are akin to the Choose Your Own Adventure™ series of gamebooks, requiring learners to make decisions from a preselected flowchart of choices. Often, the activity will present a scenario followed by a decision point that branches into different pathways and eventually leads to specific end points based upon the choices that students make along the way. These activities increase interactivity and student engagement, transform passive learning activities into active learning experiences, reinforce and apply information that students have learned, and provide self-paced, customized learning.


A repository for content shared by users of Canvas. Instructors can search Canvas Commons for any content type (for example, a quiz, page, module, or even entire course) to import into their own courses. Content found in Canvas Commons is licensed for reuse and modification. Access Canvas Commons by logging into a course in CarmenCanvas and clicking the Commons link in the course navigation pane. More information regarding Canvas Commons can be found in the Commons section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

The shared help site for Canvas. On Canvas Community, Canvas users can ask questions, find answers, share ideas, join user groups, or access the many guides published by Canvas. More information regarding Canvas Community can be found at community.canvaslms.com.

Guides that offer complete information on how to set up a Canvas course and use the full features of Canvas. Guides are available to all users of Canvas. For students, Canvas Guides provide detailed information on topics related to using Canvas as a student. Canvas Guides can be found on the Canvas Community website.

CarmenCanvas is Ohio State’s learning management system (LMS), powered by Canvas. To assist in the creation of online courses, ODEE provides an online course template in Canvas Commons that instructors and instructional designers may customize to fit their instructional needs.

A form of teaching and learning that organizes the learning experience to focus on one competency at a time, requiring students to master each competency before moving on. Ohio State is not accredited to offer competency-based learning experiences for credit.

A measure of the amount of work required for a course. The Department of Education calls for a minimum of approximately one nominal hour (50 minutes) of class time and two hours for independent student work per week, per credit hour for a C average. More information regarding Ohio State's policies on credit hours can be found on the Registrar's website. Instructors can also refer to the Credit Hour Estimation page to help determine the amount of time students might need to complete work in a particular course. (For example, a three-credit, 14-week course would, according to those policies, require three hours of structured learning time for students per week plus an average of six hours of homework and assignment preparation.)


A collaborative space within CarmenCanvas where students can post, read, and reply to messages on different topics. Discussions are also a place where students can share thoughts about the course materials, ask questions, share files, or work with peers on assignments and homework. Discussions can be graded or ungraded. Instructors can also set up group discussions to allow students to work together in smaller sections, which can be particularly useful for larger classes. More information regarding discussions can be found in the Discussions section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

In CarmenCanvas, the  date and time an assignment, discussion, or quiz is due. Even when a due date is set, students who do not submit the assignment by the due date may still complete the assignment, which will be flagged as late. Unless changed, due dates will be set to 11:59 p.m. on the selected date. More information regarding due dates can be found in the due dates resource in the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.


Individuals who work with instructors, or in partnership with instructional designers and other staff, to create engaging learning objects, course websites, or course materials. Educational technologists use existing university tools or research additional tools that can be used to help students achieve desired learning objectives.

An encompassing phrase used to describe environments featuring augmented reality (AR) or virtual reality (VR). It refers to the integration of real-world and virtual-world information in many varieties of human-computer interaction.

An application that is not among the university-supported set of tools. Ohio State has not worked with the vendor to enable integration with CarmenCanvas or to ensure that the tool meets Ohio State's accessibility and security requirements. While external tools may enable instructors to add additional functionality to their course, they should be used with caution. More information regarding external tools can be found on the Course Tools and External Integrations page.


An instructional strategy that reverses traditional teaching methods. In a flipped classroom, the activities that students often do in class are done at home and vice versa. The main tenet for the flipped classroom model is that students focus on knowledge acquisition outside of the classroom through examination of pre-recorded lectures and other video and multimedia. During class sessions, students focus on collaborative work and completion of assignments. This model allows for more active learning to occur in the classroom space, whether the classroom is an online one or a physical one.

Activities and assignments that allow students and instructors to see what students are learning during the learning process. Formative assessments allow students to receive feedback on how well they're doing while there is still time to make adjustments. Formative assessments may or may not be graded but should be low stakes to encourage learners to take risks and make mistakes rather than demonstrate mastery. Examples of formative assessments include multiple-attempt quizzes, entry or exit tickets, homework, rough drafts, and in-class group work.


Staff members who collaborate with instructors in the design and development of (usually) online and hybrid courses. IDs use a backward design approach to the design (or redesign) of a class—assignments, teaching methods, and learning environment—based on the instructor’s student learning goals and outcomes. IDs provide expertise and experience related to effective pedagogy and evidence-based teaching practices

A video that prompts students to answer questions or otherwise interact with the content as they watch. For example, an instructor might embed a short video lecture into their CarmenCanvas course that allows for breaks to test student comprehension before moving on in the lecture. Instructors can use Ohio State’s Mediasite lecture-capture tool to embed short knowledge-check questions into a video.


An instructional method through which students are shown proper techniques, equipment, or information about processes and procedures in a lab environment. Online, these can be presented as videos, images, diagrams, illustrations, or robust interactive activities with multiple components.

A platform used for the administration of courses. In online courses, the LMS typically houses all course content and assessments. CarmenCanvas is Ohio State’s LMS.


Modality or mode is the delivery method of a course. Ohio State offers courses in the following modes:

  • Distance Learning (DL): Offered completely online with no in-person components. 100% of instruction is offered at a distance.
  • Distance Enhanced (DH): Conducted primarily online and enhanced by some in-person events. 75-99% of instruction is offered at a distance; some campus component is required.
  • Hybrid (HY): Conducted both in-person and online. 25-74% of formalized instruction and interaction occurs at a distance.
  • In-Person (P): Conducted in person, with or without a limited amount of direct online instruction and interaction. 0-24% of formalized instruction and interaction occurs at a distance.


In CarmenCanvas, a grouping of similar course content. Most online courses are set up with modules that represent the weeks or topics of the semester in chronological order. A module will have a title and may include a combination of pages, discussions, assignments, quizzes, surveys, or links to files or external websites. More information regarding modules can be found in the Modules section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

In CarmenCanvas, a feature that requires students to complete specific requirements in order to unlock and gain access to a module. More information regarding module prerequisites can be found in the module prerequisites resource in the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

In CarmenCanvas, a feature that requires students to finish specific tasks before a module can be marked complete. More information regarding module requirements can be found in the module requirements resource in the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

Learning that involves the processing of visual and verbal information through dual channels. Based in Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), the body of research on multimedia learning recognizes that working memory is limited and that humans actively process incoming information to form a coherent mental representation of experiences. CLT prescribes a set of best practices for instructional or educational video that reinforces what students hear using both words and pictures.


The Office of the Chief Information Officer. OCIO provides services to help Ohio State faculty, students and staff use technologies in learning, teaching, research and administrative settings. OCIO also oversees university security policies and standards and digital accessibility.

The Office of Distance Education and eLearning. ODEE supports fully online degree and certificate programs offered through colleges and departments across the university. The unit also administers lifelong learning opportunities through Extended Education and Program 60; develops and supports learning technologies such as CarmenCanvas, Affordable Learning Exchange, Digital Publishing, Digital First Initiative, and TechHub; and supports open learning through massive open online courses (MOOCs), the Science Olympiad, State Science Day, and the annual Innovate conference. 


In CarmenCanvas, pages display course content. Instructors can use the rich content editor, add links to documents, or include videos or other materials. Pages are added to modules within the course to assist students in navigating course content. More information regarding Pages can be found in the Pages section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

A stable or permanent URL that is intended to remain the same for many years, producing a hyperlink that is less susceptible to link breakage. It is best practice for Ohio State instructors to use permalinks from the library catalog for electronic articles and texts. A permalink may require the Ohio State proxy to ensure students have access off campus. More information regarding the creation of permalinks can be found on the Linking to Library Licensed Resources page from the Ohio State University Libraries website.

Supervising or monitoring an assignment. Proctoring ensures academic integrity during exams taken on campus or in an online course. It also ensures a level playing field for all students. Proctorio is the approved and licensed proctoring solution for online exams in CarmenCanvas at Ohio State. More information on proctoring and Proctorio can be found on the Proctoring Options at Ohio State page.

Integrations of applications not affiliated with CarmenCanvas. Publisher tools allow instructors to incorporate materials from a publisher inside of their CarmenCanvas course, thus providing students a single point of entry for content. Examples of publisher tools include Cengage, Macmillan, McGraw-Hill, and Pearson. More information regarding Publisher Tools can be found on the CarmenCanvas Integrations page.


In CarmenCanvas, a method for the instructor to test student knowledge. Quizzes may be designated as practice or graded. Quizzes include questions, which are set up either individually within the quiz or via question banks. Question types include multiple choice, true/false, fill-in-the-blank, multiple answer, matching, numeric answer, formula, essay, file upload, or text-only. Optional features, such as time limits, single question per page, and shuffled questions, can help ensure academic integrity. Quizzes can also be tied to course or program learning outcomes through the Outcomes tool. More information regarding quizzes can be found in the Quizzes section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.


A set of federal regulations distinguishing distance education from correspondence education. Regular and substantive interaction is generally characterized by students and instructors interacting in a recurrent fashion—either synchronously or asynchronously—through the use of instructional technologies. There are four key elements to regular and substantive interaction: interaction initiated by the instructor, regular and frequent interaction (with weekly interaction being the baseline), meaningful interaction of an academic nature, and interaction initiated by academic personnel who meet accrediting body standards. More information regarding these regulations can be found on the Regular and Substantive Interaction page.

A method available for proctoring at Ohio State. If enabled by the instructor, Respondus requires students to download and use a specific web browser in order to take an online quiz via CarmenCanvas and prevents them from navigating elsewhere on their computers. More information can be found regarding Respondus LockDown Browser on the Using Respondus LockDown Browser page.


The process of allowing students to practice certain components of a larger task or skill and to receive feedback on their progress through multiple, low-stakes assignments. Often it is helpful to scaffold large, summative assignments by breaking them up into smaller units of formative assessment spread out throughout the term. Scaffolding can also be an opportunity to practice a complex skill multiple times, beginning with a simple application and increasing in complexity with each future iteration. Example: Students receive feedback across the semester on an annotated bibliography, an abstract, one body paragraph, and a rough draft before submitting their final paper. Students receive feedback across the semester on setting up a specimen dish, identifying pre-made samples, and sampling a simple specimen before finally sampling a complex specimen.

Courses that do not follow a preset schedule. All course materials and assignments are available as soon as the course begins, and students complete the work at their own pace with no expectation of adherence to a predetermined schedule or due dates. Ohio State is not accredited to offer self-paced courses for credit. (See also competency-based learning.)

The built-in grading tool for CarmenCanvas. Instructors can use SpeedGrader when grading discussions, submissions, assignments, or open-ended questions that are not automatically graded as part of a quiz. SpeedGrader enables an instructor to move seamlessly from one student's work to the next with as few clicks as possible. Instructors grading on a mobile platform can use the Canvas Teacher app to grade via SpeedGrader. More information regarding SpeedGrader can be found in the SpeedGrader section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

Different ways students can submit an assignment and may be one or more of the following: online text entry, website URL, media recording, file upload, paper submission, no submission, or submission via an external tool integrated within CarmenCanvas. Submission types do not apply to discussions or quizzes.

High-stakes assignments that measure achievement of learning outcomes after the learning has taken place. Summative assessments capture the sum or product of student learning and whether students have mastered the desired skills. Examples include a final paper or project, presentations, end-of-module quizzes, exams, and portfolios.

In CarmenCanvas, a type of quiz that can be graded or ungraded. Graded surveys post to the course gradebook while ungraded surveys are a way for instructors to gain feedback from students. More information regarding surveys can be found in the Quizzes section of the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

A place in each CarmenCanvas course where, in addition to posting a print syllabus, instructors can display pertinent information relating to components of the course such as the schedule, required technology, office hours, contact information, or grading. The link to the syllabus page can be found in the course navigation section. More information regarding the course syllabus can be found in the syllabus resource in the Canvas Instructor Guide on Canvas Community.

Learning that happens when all students engage in the same activities simultaneously. Examples of synchronous learning activities include real-time discussions and livestreamed lectures. Many synchronous learning activities are facilitated using web conferencing technology. CarmenZoom is Ohio State’s centrally supported web conferencing platform. More information regarding this tool can be found on the CarmenZoom page.


The strategies and practices through which an instructor might instill their presence within an online course, typically through a combination of instructional activities, direct facilitation, and purposeful course design. There are numerous strategies through which instructors might build teaching presence into their courses, such as regularly scheduled communications with the class via announcements and check-ins, substantive participation in class discussions (e.g., Carmen discussions or synchronous sessions), and personalized feedback on course assignments.

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Principles and best practices for ensuring that all activities, assignments, outcomes, and instructional methods are designed in such a way that all students have multiple ways to interact with the content and be assessed on their learning. The three key principles underpinning UDL are multiple means of representation (information is presented in multiple ways), multiple means of expression (students are provided with a variety of opportunities and ways to demonstrate their learning), and multiple means of engagement (there are multiple ways for students to interact with course content and with one another). More information regarding the best strategies for implementing UDL principles can be found on the Apply UDL Principles page.

Provides teaching support focused on improving the learning experience for students. UITL aims to achieve President Drake's goal to make the university as highly regarded for world-class teaching as it is for research. The University Center for the Advancement of Teaching (UCAT) merged with UITL in December 2018.

Tools that have been researched, vetted, and licensed, and are supported by the university, usually by ODEE or by a particular college. These tools have been determined to meet university policies, including those for privacy, data security, and accessibility. Faculty, staff, and students are able to get direct support with these tools by calling the Help Desk. Such tools include CarmenCanvas, CarmenZoom, ExamSoft, LabArchives, Mediasite, Secured Media Library, Top Hat, U.OSU, Vita, and Turnitin.


A video or interactive experience that mirrors the live experience of visiting a location. Virtual field trips are often accompanied by interviews or narrations from knowledgeable experts onsite. Virtual field trips help distance educators ensure that students learning online can still experience locations pertinent to their course. Virtual field trips can occur as a series of 360-degree videos with other embedded digital assets that produce stunning narratives or contain interesting information for our students.

A fully immersive environment in which a user experiences a completely computer-generated world. The sensory experiences are provided by computer simulation. With current technology, a VR user still moves through a physical real-world environment, but the user's input is translated into the virtual world, often at a 1:1 ratio. As costs continue to fall and systems continue to develop, virtual reality will likely become an incredible instructional tool to replicate inherently dangerous situations in the safety of a classroom, such as flight simulators.


The multimedia equivalent of "chalk talk" lectures from face-to-face courses, where the instructor writes or draws on the whiteboard to illustrate course concepts to students. Instructors can replicate this in the online space through whiteboarding applications such as Explain Everything that draw out and explain visual concepts using diagrams, graphs, or equations. The Denney Digital Union provides a user-friendly video studio where instructors can record a "lightboard" lecture. These lectures feature instructors standing behind a plate of transparent glass and delivering their "chalk talk" to the camera. Lightboard lectures can help instructors amplify their presence within the course, as students can see their instructor in the video.